When Monica first came to see me at age 42, she felt like a complete mess. As she listed off her symptoms, I could understand why: low energy, racing thoughts, mood swings, poor memory and concentration, difficulty sustaining a focus, easy distractibility, and insomnia were all impeding her ability to feel whole and live a normal life. Monica had a childhood history of ADHD. She was also 100 pounds overweight. Now, it would’ve been one thing if Monica had never been treated for these and other symptoms. But in fact, Monica had been diagnosed with Bipolar I Disorder ten years earlier. Those who suffer Bipolar I Disorder experience more intense manic episodes than Bipolar II patients—accordingly, she’d been previously prescribed Lithium, Lexapro, Clonazepam, Lamictal, Seroquel, and Abilify. There were also past trials of Vyvanse and Depakote, along with a number of other medications that she couldn’t recall. A decade of treatments had not made any meaningful difference. How was that possible?